Greska's
Carbon-60 Science

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How It Works

As your body ages, it loses its ability to fight the effects of free radicals. The result is more free radicals, which in turn causes more oxidative stress and more damage to cells.

Health experts agree that excessive free radicals and toxins are recognized as a significant contributor to the development of many health issues and are responsible for aging. Greska’s Carbon-60 protects against this damage, supporting healthy cell function.

Excessive free radicals are known to cause oxidative stress. Free radicals are molecules in your body, missing an electron. These electron-deficient molecules do not work properly and impair healthy bodily functions by stealing electrons from neighboring healthy cells. (Oxidative Stress)

Greska’s Carbon-60 provide electrons that stimulate an antioxidant response within your cells to stabilize damaging free radicals and neutralize toxins, halting the damaging chain reaction of oxidative stress.

Antioxidant Effects of Carbon 60

Perhaps the most touted beneficial property of Carbon 60 in biological systems is its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, especially at the level of the mitochondria, where the majority of “free radicals” ROS, aka Reactive Oxygen Species) are generated during the production of ATP.

The breakthrough with Greska’s Carbon-60, is that we able to convert our own Carbon 60 powder with our EXCLUSIVE process that is totally contaminant-free. We have the ONLY Carbon 60 production process with NO solvent and NO carbon rod contaminants. 

 

Numerous studies have connected oxidative stress due to free radicals to:

Antioxidant Effects of Carbon 60

Greska's Bottle and dropper

Perhaps the most touted beneficial property of Carbon 60 in biological systems is its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, especially at the level of the mitochondria, where the majority of “free radicals” ROS, aka Reactive Oxygen Species) are generated during the production of ATP (The energy currency for the body)

The breakthrough with Greska’s Carbon-60 is that we are able to convert our own Carbon 60 powder that is totally contaminant-free. We have the ONLY Carbon 60 production process with NO solvent and NO carbon rod contaminants. (see: www.c-60.com/comparisons)

Our process produces the Carbon 60 in a 20 nano-meter bio-compatible sphere of pure Carbon 60.  These very tiny Food Grade spheres of Carbon 60 are non-clustered, non-crystalline, and totally safe for you and your pet.

These small individual clean spheres of C60 are what make Greska’s Carbon-60 so effective.  Whereas other products and antioxidants are much larger and only capable of scavenging free radicals in interstitial spaces of organs and tissues, or at best, the liquid cytosol (the liquid within the cell). Our C60 molecules are small enough to pass thru cellular membranes to work at the mitochondrial level. This unique ability allows mitigation of damage from the ROS cascade right at their source… reducing an organism’s overall burden of oxidative stress and degenerative conditions.

More significantly, Carbon-60 is a more “intelligent” antioxidant than excessive amounts of vitamins C or E, in that C60 maintains a healthy “redox balance” thru “charge disproportionation” (aka “dismutation” thru the delocalized electrons in its lattice structure.  In this way, Carbon 60 performs better as an antioxidant due to its ability to optimize a cell’s “redox” reactions.

Although purely theoretical at this time, a number of computational studies suggest C60’s antioxidant effect may be due to the molecule’s ability to act as a mild “mitochondrial uncoupler.” This theory proposes that C60 can acquire a positive charge by becoming protonated with Hydrogen (H+) ions, enabling it to translocate across the mitochondrial membrane, favorably affecting the transmembrane potential, reducing the leakage of electrons along the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), and ultimately minimizing the production of ROS. Alternatively, several in-vitro studies, as well as live mouse studies, have demonstrated the ability of a carboxylated derivative of C60 to act as a Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) mimetic, catalyzing the highly reactive Superoxide radical to the less toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or molecular oxygen (O2). More recent studies have shown that C60 may be a mild cellular stressor (much like resveratrol, curcumin, and green tea polyphenols), exerting its beneficial effects by activating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway.

Contaminants in Carbon Rod / Solvent-Extracted C60
(Not the Greska’s Process!)

C60 produced thru electric arc discharge or laser ablation of carbon rods and extracting the resulting fullerenes with toxic hydrocarbon solvents (i.e., benzene, hexane, toluene, carbon disulfide, etc.) is known to introduce impurities into the C60. These can consist of any number of various inorganic elements (iron, silica, potassium, sulfur, etc.) as well as residues from the solvents. These contaminants invariably change the defined, known characteristics of the C60 molecule in unpredictable ways. Elemental impurities can transform an otherwise stable, pure C60 molecule into a ferromagnetic (when contaminated with Iron), or a superconductor when contaminated with an alkali metal like Potassium. 

Additionally, the solvent residues which are both chemically bonded to and physically trapped within the C60 molecules (and which can never be fully removed) change the shape and surface charge of the molecule causing it to aggregate into various crystalline forms. As well, the toxicity of any solvent residues on the C60 molecules in living systems is potentiated by the fact that they can reach further and deeper into cells and tissues using C60 as a carrier.

Although Fullerenes can be produced thru a solvent-free, temperature-intensive process known as “sublimation”, the resulting mixture invariably contains some % of other fullerenes, such as C70, C84, etc. In order to achieve the 99.9% “purity” touted by various manufacturers, Toluene is used to separate the C60 from the other higher fullerenes. The resulting C60 is still highly crystallized, and still contains solvent residue, albeit less than C60 chemically extracted from soot.

References

Some of these references do not have a mobile-friendly website.

scihub.bban.top/10.1371/journal.pone.0114490
Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals
Lehto M, Karilainen T, Róg T, Cramariuc O, Vanhala E, Tornaeus J, Taberman H, Jänis J, Alenius H, Vattulainen I, Laine O
PLoS One, 2014

scihub.bban.top/10.1021/jp982222d
Solvent Molecules in Crystalline C60
Skokan EV, Privalov VI, Arkhangel’skii IV, Davydov VY
Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1999

scihub.bban.top/10.1021/ac00105a006
Trace Element Impurities in C60, C70 and Graphite Soot
BraunT, Rausch H
Analytical Chemistry, 1995

scihub.bban.top/10.1039/a808657e
Determination of Sulfur as an Impurity in Commercial C60, Fullerene Soot and Sublimed C60 Polycrystals by INAA
Rausch H, Braun T, Dódony I, Lovas, G
Analyst, 1999 January

scihub.bban.top/10.1080/15363839708012000
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Element Impurities in Graphite Soot, Gold Grade C60 and C70 and in Super Gold Grade C60
Rausch H, Braun T
Fullerene Science and Technology,1997 October

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17450884
Ferromagnetism in C60 Polymers: Pure Carbon or Contamination with Metallic Impurities?
J Nanosci Nanotechnology, 2007 Apr-May

scihub.bban.top/10.3390/ma12162571
[60]Fullerene for Medicinal Purposes, A Purity Criterion towards Regulatory Considerations
Keykhosravi S, Rietveld IB, Couto D, Tamarit JL, Barrio M, Céolin R, Moussa F
Materials, 2019 August

The Effects of Toluene on the Central Nervous System
Filley CM, Halliday W & Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 2004
DOI: 10.1093/jnen/63.1.1

C60

“Carbon 60” (C60) is a naturally-occurring, nano-size, molecular form of Carbon. It is found in Deep Space, as well as in the Earth’s environment, forming spontaneously from carbon atoms under certain conditions. Lightning strikes, volcanos, meteors and soot from candle burning are all sources of spontaneous, naturally-occurring C60 on our planet. Along with Hydrogen and Oxygen, Carbon is one of the 3 foundational “biogenic” elements of all living organisms. More than simply a “nano sphere” of carbon, C60’s unique molecular arrangement of 60 carbon atoms, in the form of a truncated Icosahedron with Golden Mean (“Phi”) ratio, classifies it as a distinct “allotrope” of Carbon. It is this distinct molecular arrangement of carbon atoms that gives C60 its extraordinary physical, chemical, electromagnetic and quantum properties. And it is the synergistic combination of all 4 of these properties that have been shown to exert profoundly regenerative and regulatory effects in biological systems.

Unlike many engineered nanoparticles which can be toxic, C60, being a form of elemental Carbon, is different. Due to the fact that living organisms, being carbon-based, have evolved alongside this molecule, they have developed ways of utilizing it, exploiting it and biodegrading it with little to no toxicity.
Hence, in its pure form, it does not have the risk of accumulating in tissues and organs the way other engineered nano-size particles of other elements can. Unfortunately, the large-scale production methods developed to produce C60 for research and industrial purposes over the past 30 years have relied on methods that unavoidably introduce impurities, solvent residues, and defects into the final product.
These C60’s are neither consistently nor uniformly non-toxic, a fact which is reflected in the adverse outcomes of many biological studies that have used these C60’s to examine their effects in living organisms. On the occasions where exceptionally pure and pristine molecules of C60 can be obtained and utilized (i.e., the C60 molecules akin to those found in nature, unaltered in their size, shape and surface charge), the C60 molecule’s protective and rejuvenative effects in living organisms are astonishing. Research in the field of biomolecular and nanotechnology has repeatedly shown that when it comes to nano-size molecules, it is the purity, size, shape and surface charge of those molecules that determine their biological effects. These features take on even greater significance when factoring in a nano-size molecule’s quantum effect, as ALL subcellular biomolecular processes occur thru electromagnetic fields before they are translated into chemical reactions. Greska’s C-60’s completely solvent-free production method, from start to finish, has achieved just that: C60 as nature intended it.

C60 Electrons for Cellular Voltage

Life can be described as the “flow of electrons”, and living organisms depend on a constant supply of electrons to generate ATP, the body’s energy currency. A deficiency or stoppage in the flow of electrons ultimately results in cellular degeneration and death. Although living organisms have many sources for acquiring electrons, the toxicities and stresses of modern living create situations where we lose more electrons than we gain (see image Left and Below from Jerry Tennant MD’s work, Healing is Voltage, 2010). A deficiency of electrons results in low cellular voltage (similar to a low battery), a low pH, and a low Oxygen level within the cell, all of which creates an energetic crisis. Initially this is experienced as fatigue, chronic pain, and increased susceptibility to infections. Once enough cells have been compromised, degeneration and malfunctions of various organs and issues begin to manifest.

Fortunately, there are many strategies nowadays to bring electrons back into the body and restore cellular voltage. C60 is a very rich source of electrons. With Carbon (graphite) being the most cathodic element on the Galvanic Table, C60 generates an abundance of electrons when in the presence of any anodic element, the most anodic being Magnesium (see Galvanic Table of Elements below). An abundance of electrons can then raise the pH of a cell, increasing its voltage, similar to the way a battery is charged. The higher the pH of a cell, the more oxygen it is able to absorb. With more oxygen present, the cell is then able to produce ATP thru oxidative phosphorylation, as opposed to the primitive and inefficient “default” pathway of “glycolysis” (i.e., fermentation) when oxygen is not present. Cells that have reverted to producing ATP thru glycolysis generate very little ATP and high amounts of Lactic Acid. This is akin to a poorly running car that uses a lot of gas, but has poor gas mileage and produces high amounts of exhaust in the process. This low ATP, low oxygen, high acid environment is polluting to the cell. Pain, fatigue, brain fog, fungal and other microbial infections are hallmarks of toxicity on a cellular level. When cellular voltage and pH is restored, oxygen becomes available, energy production improves, nutrients flow in and waste flows out, and the cell has the right conditions to begin healing itself. We have had many reports of such experiences from people (and their pets) using Greska’s C-60.

References

Some of these references do not have a mobile-friendly website.

scihub.bban.top/10.1038/44348
Wave–particle Duality of C60 Molecules
Arndt M, Nairz O, Vos-Andreae J, Keller C, Zouw GVD, Zeilinge A

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255654867_Molecular_Nanotechnology_Golden_Mean_as_a_Driving_Force_of_Self-Assembly
Molecular Nanotechnology: Golden Mean as a Driving Force of Self-Assembly
Koruga D, Simic-Krstic K, Matija L Petrov L, Ratka Z
University of Belgrade, 2002

scihub.bban.top/10.1016/B978-0-323-52727-9.00004-2
Fibonacci Nanostructures for Novel Nanotherapeutical Approach
LidijaMatija*JelenaMuncan*IvanaMileusnic*DjuroKoruga
Nano- and Microscale Drug Delivery Systems Design and Fabrication, Elsevier 2017

scihub.bban.top/10.1016/j.nano.2015.11.011
Biological interactions of carbon-based nanomaterials: From coronation to degradation
Bhattacharya K1, Mukherjee SP, Gallud A, Burkert SC, Bistarelli S, Bellucci S, Bottini M, Star A, Fadeel B
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, February 2016

scihub.bban.top/10.1016/S0001-8686(97)00040-7
Structure and Reactivity of Water at Biomaterial Surfaces
Erwin A Vogler
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, February 1998


scihub.bban.top/10.1073/pnas.1110626108
Remarkable patterns of surface water ordering around polarized buckminsterfullerene
Gaurav Chopra and Michael Levitt
PNAS August 30, 2011


scihub.bban.top/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.06.016
Peculiarities of the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of hydrated C60 fullerene nanostuctures in vitro and in vivo
Andrievsky GV, Bruskov VI, Tykhomyrov AA, Gudkovc SV
Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2009 September

https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780122222504/cell-associated-water
Cell-Associated Water: Proceedings of a Workshop on Cell-Associated Water Held in Boston, MA, September, 1976 – January 1, 1979
by W. Drost-Hansen (Editor)

scihub.bban.top/10.1007/978-981-10-7904-7_13
The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy, Life and Health
Pollack, Gerald
Biological, Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering, 2018

The Quantum Effect of C60

A single C60 molecule is approximately 1 nanometer in size. Molecules in the nanoscale size range are exceptionally powerful in biological systems due to their ability to disperse widely throughout the body, more or less uninhibited, right down to the subcellular level. Their smallness of size also dramatically increases their surface-to-volume ratio, offering more reaction sites and thus, more reactivity. But perhaps the most unique characteristic of nano-size molecules is that pertaining to their “quantum” effect. Molecules on the nanoscale have what is known as “wave-particle duality”, which means they have both physical properties and vibrational properties. This is significant, as ALL molecular biology takes place on the nanoscale, with information traveling first as a wave form, or “vibrational frequency”, and secondly as a physiochemical reaction. This is also why the 3D shape and sizeof a nano molecule is critical.

Perhaps one of the most intriguing and compelling theories for C60’s beneficial effects in biological systems is the quantum effect of its vibrational frequency. As an Icosahedron and one of Nature’s 5 Platonic Solids incorporating the Golden Mean Ratio (aka “Phi)”, the electromagnetic frequency of C60’s vibration has a highly resonant and harmonizing effect on living systems. Such vibrations from solids incorporating the Golden Mean Ratio, particularly those with the 5-fold and 6-fold symmetry of pentagons and hexagons, impart an “ordering” effect on adjacent water molecules, and induce “coherence”. Of the 5 Platonic Solids, it is not entirely coincidental that the Icosahedron represents the earth element Water.

As living organisms are mostly water, and most cellular signaling occurs thru the medium of Water, this “coherence” allows the body’s physiological processes to unfold with the timing, order and precision needed for optimal DNA expression, repair, transcription, protein unfolding, cell division and apoptosis. In fact, nowadays, one criterion used to evaluate any solid nanomaterial being considered for biological implantation is its 3D structure and geometry. Not coincidentally, research in the field of bio-nanotechnology has shown that molecules incorporating the Golden Mean Ratio in their structure, such as C60, are exceptionally biocompatible within living systems.


The fact that the C60 molecule bears the same pentagonal and hexagonal structure as the body’s transporter protein known as “clathrin” is of particular interest to the pharmaceutical industry as well. With its shape and symmetry quite literally a “carbon copy” of this innate, self-assembling biomolecule, C60 is very attractive candidate for targeted drug delivery.