Antioxidant: Effects of C60
Perhaps the most touted beneficial property of C60 in biological systems is its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, especially at the level of the mitochondria, where the majority of “free radicals” ROS, aka Reactive Oxygen Species) are generated during the production of ATP. Whereas most dietary antioxidants are only capable of scavenging free radicals in interstitial spaces of organs and tissues, or at best the cytosol of the cell, C60 molecules are small enough to pass thru cellular membranes and localize to the mitochondria. This unique ability to mitigate damage from the ROS cascade right at their source, and where they inflict the most damage, reduces an organism’s overall burden of oxidative stress and the degenerative conditions that can result from it. More significantly, unlike most antioxidants such as Vitamin C or E that in excess may undermine a healthy “redox balance” (the necessary balance between pro- and anti-oxidant processes in the cell), C60 performs this process thru “charge disproportionation” (aka “dismutation”) thru the delocalized electrons in its lattice structure. In this way, it is a more “intelligent” antioxidant due to its ability to optimize a cell’s “redox” reactions. Although purely theoretical at this time, a number of computational studies suggest C60’s antioxidant effect may be due to the molecule’s ability to act as a mild “mitochondrial uncoupler”. This theory proposes that C60 can acquire a positive charge by becoming protonated with Hydrogen (H+) ions, enabling it to translocate across the mitochondrial membrane, favorably affecting the transmembrane potential, reducing the leakage of electrons along the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), and ultimately minimizing the production of ROS. Alternatively, several in-vitro studies, as well as live mouse studies, have demonstrated the ability of a carboxylated derivative of C60 to act as an Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) mimetic, catalyzing the highly reactive Superoxide radical to the less toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or molecular Oxygen (O2). More recent studies have shown that C60 may be a mild cellular stressor (much like resveratrol, curcumin, and green tea polyphenols), exerting its beneficial effects by activating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway.
The “Color” of C60
Pure, unadulterated C60 is BLACK. C60 is only ever “purple” (or “magenta”) when it has interacted with solvents such as Toluene. In other cases, it may be yellow, green, pink or brown, depending on which solvent is used (see Fig. 1). The color change in C60 in various solutions is the result of “solvation shells” which are formed between the solute (C60) and solvent when they interact. This interaction changes the electrophysical properties of the C60 molecules, causing them to aggregate (i.e., cluster) into crystal formations of various shapes and sizes. It is these crystal formations of aggregated C60 that reflect specific wavelengths of light and which result in “color”. Since the electrophysical properties of the C60 are permanently altered from having interacted with a solvent, C60 remains in an aggregated, crystallized state, even after the solvent has been vaporized off. Additionally, some solvent also remains behind, being both chemically bonded to and physically trapped within the C60 molecules. Hence, re-dissolving the solid C60 “powder” that is left behind after this process into an oil will still produce a color change. It is evidence of crystallized, aggregated C60 from solvent extraction methods. Since Greska’s C-60 is produced thru a completely solvent-free process, it is NOT crystallized and hence does NOT produce a color when immediately immersed in a solvent such as Toluene. Our powder can and does crystallize after 3 weeks of soaking in Toluene, producing a characteristic purple solution. Thru our production method, because it retains its original shape and electron configuration, it is BLACK from start to finish.
sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.jlumin.2009.11.033 Solvent-Induced Optical Properties of C60 Zhang F, Zhang X Journal of Luminescence,2010 May DOI: 10.1016/j.jlumin.2009.11.033 sci-hub.tw/10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b03095 Solvent-Mediated Shape Engineering of Fullerene (C60) Polyhedral Microcrystals Zheng S, Cuong NT, Okada S, Xu T, Shen W, Lu X, Tsukagoshi K Chemistry of Materials, 2018 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b03095 scihub.bban.top/10.1080/10641229909350288 Crystal Structure of C60 and C70 Compounds Dyachenko OA, Graja A Fullerene Science and Technology, 1999 DOI: 10.1080/10641229909350288 scihub.bban.top/10.1016/j.physleta.2016.04.030 Features of Self-Aggregation of C60 Molecules in Toluene Prepared by Different Methods Makhmanov U, Ismailova O, Kokhkharov A, Zakhido E, Bakhramov S Physics Letters, 2016 April DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2016.04.030
Contaminants in Carbon Rod / Solvent-Extracted C60 (Not Greska’s Process!)
C60 produced thru electric arc discharge or laser ablation of carbon rods and extracting the resulting fullerenes with toxic hydrocarbon solvents (i.e., benzene, hexane, toluene, carbon disulfide, etc.) is known to introduce impurities into the C60. These can consist of any number of various inorganic elements (iron, silica, potassium, sulfur, etc.) as well as residues from the solvents. These contaminants invariably change the defined, known characteristics of the C60 molecule in unpredictable ways. Elemental impurities can transform an otherwise stable, pure C60 molecule into a ferromagnetic (when contaminated with Iron), or a superconductor when contaminated with an alkali metal like Potassium. Additionally, the solvent residues which are both chemically bonded to and physically trapped within the C60 molecules (and which can never be fully removed) change the shape and surface charge of the molecule causing it to aggregate into various crystalline forms. As well, the toxicity of any solvent residues on the C60 molecules in living systems is potentiated by the fact that they can reach further and deeper into cells and tissues using C60 as a carrier.
Although Fullerenes can be produced thru a solvent-free, temperature-intensive process known as “sublimation”, the resulting mixture invariably contains some % of other fullerenes, such as C70, C84, etc. In order to achieve the 99.9% “purity” touted by various manufacturers, Toluene is used to separate the C60 from the other higher fullerenes. The resulting C60 is still highly crystallized, and still contains solvent residue, albeit less than C60 chemically extracted from soot.
scihub.bban.top/10.1371/journal.pone.0114490 Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals Lehto M, Karilainen T, Róg T, Cramariuc O, Vanhala E, Tornaeus J, Taberman H, Jänis J, Alenius H, Vattulainen I, Laine O PLoS One, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114490 scihub.bban.top/10.1021/jp982222d Solvent Molecules in Crystalline C60 Skokan EV, Privalov VI, Arkhangel’skii IV, Davydov VY Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1999 DOI: 10.1021/jp982222d scihub.bban.top/10.1021/ac00105a006 Trace Element Impurities in C60, C70 and Graphite Soot BraunT, Rausch H Analytical Chemistry, 1995 DOI: 10.1021/ac00105a006 scihub.bban.top/10.1039/a808657e Determination of Sulfur as an Impurity in Commercial C60, Fullerene Soot and Sublimed C60 Polycrystals by INAA Rausch H, Braun T, Dódony I, Lovas, G Analyst, 1999 January DOI: 10.1039/a808657e scihub.bban.top/10.1080/15363839708012000 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Element Impurities in Graphite Soot, Gold Grade C60 and C70 and in Super Gold Grade C60 Rausch H, Braun T Fullerene Science and Technology,1997 October DOI: 10.1080/15363839708012000 http://mp.ipme.ru/e-journals/MPM/no_21312/N2_10_gerasimov.pd Purity Analysis of Trade Produced C-60 Fullerene Gerasimov VI, Matuzenko MY, Proskurina OV Materials Physics and Mechanics, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17450884 Ferromagnetism in C60 Polymers: Pure Carbon or Contamination with Metallic Impurities? J Nanosci Nanotechnology, 2007 Apr-May DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2007.304 scihub.bban.top/10.3390/ma12162571 Fullerene for Medicinal Purposes, A Purity Criterion towards Regulatory Considerations Keykhosravi S, Rietveld IB, Couto D, Tamarit JL, Barrio M, Céolin R, Moussa F Materials, 2019 August DOI: 10.3390/ma12162571 sci-hub.tw/10.1093/jnen/63.1.1 The Effects of Toluene on the Central Nervous System Filley CM, Halliday W & Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 2004 DOI: 10.1093/jnen/63.1.1
A Gift from the Universe
“Carbon 60” (C60) is a naturally-occurring, nano-size, molecular form of Carbon. It is found in Deep Space, as well as in the Earth’s environment, forming spontaneously from carbon atoms under certain conditions. Lightning strikes, volcanos, meteors and soot from candle burning are all sources of spontaneous, naturally-occurring C60 on our planet. Along with Hydrogen and Oxygen, Carbon is one of the 3 foundational “biogenic” elements of all living organisms.
More than simply a “nano sphere” of carbon, C60’s unique molecular arrangement of 60 carbon atoms, in the form of a truncated Icosahedron with Golden Mean (“Phi”) ratio, classifies it as a distinct “allotrope” of Carbon. It is this distinct molecular arrangement of carbon atoms that gives C60 its extraordinary physical, chemical, electromagnetic and quantum properties. And it is the synergistic combination of all 4 of these properties that have been shown to exert profoundly regenerative and regulatory effects in biological systems.
Unlike many engineered nanoparticles which can be toxic, C60, being a form of elemental Carbon, is different. Due to the fact that living organisms, being carbon-based, have evolved alongside this molecule, they have developed ways of utilizing it, exploiting it and biodegrading it with little to no toxicity.
Hence, in its pure form, it does not have the risk of accumulating in tissues and organs the way other engineered nano-size particles of other elements can. Unfortunately, the large-scale production methods developed to produce C60 for research and industrial purposes over the past 30 years have relied on methods that unavoidably introduce impurities, solvent residues, and defects into the final product.
These C60’s are neither consistently nor uniformly non-toxic, a fact which is reflected in the adverse outcomes of many biological studies that have used these C60’s to examine their effects in living organisms. On the occasions where exceptionally pure and pristine molecules of C60 can be obtained and utilized (i.e., the C60 molecules akin to those found in nature, unaltered in their size, shape and surface charge), the C60 molecule’s protective and rejuvenative effects in living organisms are astonishing. Research in the field of biomolecular and nanotechnology has repeatedly shown that when it comes to nano-size molecules, it is the purity, size, shape and surface charge of those molecules that determine their biological effects. These features take on even greater significance when factoring in a nano-size molecule’s quantum effect, as ALL subcellular biomolecular processes occur thru electromagnetic fields before they are translated into chemical reactions. Greska’s C-60’s completely solvent-free production method, from start to finish, has achieved just that: C60 as nature intended it.
C-60: Electrons for Cellular Voltage
Life can be described as the “flow of electrons”, and living organisms depend on a constant supply of electrons to generate ATP, the body’s energy currency. A deficiency or stoppage in the flow of electrons ultimately results in cellular degeneration and death. Although living organisms have many sources for acquiring electrons, the toxicities and stresses of modern living create situations where we lose more electrons than we gain (see image Left and Below from Jerry Tennant MD’s work, Healing is Voltage, 2010). A deficiency of electrons results in low cellular voltage (similar to a low battery), a low pH, and a low Oxygen level within the cell, all of which creates an energetic crisis. Initially this is experienced as fatigue, chronic pain, and increased susceptibility to infections. Once enough cells have been compromised, degeneration and malfunctions of various organs and issues begin to manifest. Fortunately, there are many strategies nowadays to bring electrons back into the body and restore cellular voltage. C60 is a very rich source of electrons. With Carbon (graphite) being the most cathodic element on the Galvanic Table, C60 generates an abundance of electrons when in the presence of any anodic element, the most anodic being Magnesium (see Galvanic Table of Elements below). An abundance of electrons can then raise the pH of a cell, increasing its voltage, similar to the way a battery is charged. The higher the pH of a cell, the more oxygen it is able to absorb. With more oxygen present, the cell is then able to produce ATP thru oxidative phosphorylation, as opposed to the primitive and inefficient “default” pathway of “glycolysis” (i.e., fermentation) when oxygen is not present. Cells that have reverted to producing ATP thru glycolysis generate very little ATP and high amounts of Lactic Acid. This is akin to a poorly running car that uses a lot of gas, but has poor gas mileage and produces high amounts of exhaust in the process. This low ATP, low oxygen, high acid environment is polluting to the cell. Pain, fatigue, brain fog, fungal and other microbial infections are hallmarks of toxicity on a cellular level. When cellular voltage and pH is restored, oxygen becomes available, energy production improves, nutrients flow in and waste flows out, and the cell has the right conditions to begin healing itself. We have had many reports of such experiences from people (and their pets) using Greska’s C-60.
Healing is Voltage: The Handbook, Tennant Jerry L, 2010 https://thriveglobal.com/stories/think-of-your-body-as-one-great-big-battery/
Galvanic Table of Elements
Electron density distribution of fullerene (C60) modeled in transparent resin using a 3D printer. The red dots in this 5cm-square resin model represent electron density distribution (electron cloud). The lower half depicts an electron cloud superimposed on a ball-and-stick type molecular model representing atoms and interatomic bonds. The model makes it easy to grasp that the electron cloud is distributed equally around the nucleus of each carbon atom.
The Quantum Effect of C60
A single C60 molecule is approximately 1 nanometer in size. Molecules in the nanoscale size range are exceptionally powerful in biological systems due to their ability to disperse widely throughout the body, more or less uninhibited, right down to the subcellular level. Their smallness of size also dramatically increases their surface-to-volume ratio, offering more reaction sites and thus, more reactivity. But perhaps the most unique characteristic of nano-size molecules is that pertaining to their “quantum” effect. Molecules on the nanoscale have what is known as “wave-particle duality”, which means they have both physical properties and vibrational properties. This is significant, as ALL molecular biology takes place on the nanoscale, with information traveling first as a wave form, or “vibrational frequency”, and secondly as a physiochemical reaction. This is also why the 3D shape and sizeof a nano molecule is critical. https://www.nano.gov/nanotech-101/special
Perhaps one of the most intriguing and compelling theories for C60’s beneficial effects in biological systems is the quantum effect of its vibrational frequency. As an Icosahedron and one of Nature’s 5 Platonic Solids incorporating the Golden Mean Ratio (aka “Phi)”, the electromagnetic frequency of C60’s vibration has a highly resonant and harmonizing effect on living systems. Such vibrations from solids incorporating the Golden Mean Ratio, particularly those with the 5-fold and 6-fold symmetry of pentagons and hexagons, impart an “ordering” effect on adjacent water molecules, and induce “coherence”. Of the 5 Platonic Solids, it is not entirely coincidental that the Icosahedron represents the earth element Water.
As living organisms are mostly water, and most cellular signaling occurs thru the medium of Water, this “coherence” allows the body’s physiological processes to unfold with the timing, order and precision needed for optimal DNA expression, repair, transcription, protein unfolding, cell division and apoptosis. In fact, nowadays, one criterion used to evaluate any solid nanomaterial being considered for biological implantation is its 3D structure and geometry. Not coincidentally, research in the field of bio-nanotechnology has shown that molecules incorporating the Golden Mean Ratio in their structure, such as C60, are exceptionally biocompatible within living systems.
The fact that the C60 molecule bears the same pentagonal and hexagonal structure as the body’s transporter protein known as “clathrin” is of particular interest to the pharmaceutical industry as well. With its shape and symmetry quite literally a “carbon copy” of this innate, self-assembling biomolecule, C60 is very attractive candidate for targeted drug delivery.
scihub.bban.top/10.1038/44348 Wave–particle Duality of C60 Molecules Arndt M, Nairz O, Vos-Andreae J, Keller C, Zouw GVD, Zeilinge A DOI: 10.1038/44348 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255654867_Molecular_Nanotechnology_Golden_Mean_as_a_Driving_Force_of_Self-Assembly Molecular Nanotechnology: Golden Mean as a Driving Force of Self-Assembly Koruga D, Simic-Krstic K, Matija L Petrov L, Ratka Z University of Belgrade, 2002 scihub.bban.top/10.1016/B978-0-323-52727-9.00004-2 Fibonacci Nanostructures for Novel Nanotherapeutical Approach LidijaMatija*JelenaMuncan*IvanaMileusnic*DjuroKoruga Nano- and Microscale Drug Delivery Systems Design and Fabrication, Elsevier 2017 DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-323-52727-9.00004-2 scihub.bban.top/10.1016/j.nano.2015.11.011 Biological interactions of carbon-based nanomaterials: From coronation to degradation Bhattacharya K1, Mukherjee SP, Gallud A, Burkert SC, Bistarelli S, Bellucci S, Bottini M, Star A, Fadeel B Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, February 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2015.11.011 scihub.bban.top/10.1016/S0001-8686(97)00040-7 Structure and Reactivity of Water at Biomaterial Surfaces Erwin A Vogler Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, February 1998 DOI: 10.1016/s0001-8686(97)00040-7 scihub.bban.top/10.1073/pnas.1110626108 Remarkable patterns of surface water ordering around polarized buckminsterfullerene Gaurav Chopra and Michael Levitt PNAS August 30, 2011 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1110626108 scihub.bban.top/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.06.016 Peculiarities of the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of hydrated C60 fullerene nanostuctures in vitro and in vivo Andrievsky GV, Bruskov VI, Tykhomyrov AA, Gudkovc SV Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2009 September doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.06.016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780122222504/cell-associated-water Cell-Associated Water: Proceedings of a Workshop on Cell-Associated Water Held in Boston, MA, September, 1976 – January 1, 1979 by W. Drost-Hansen (Editor) scihub.bban.top/10.1007/978-981-10-7904-7_13 The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy, Life and Health Pollack, Gerald Biological, Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering, 2018 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-7904-7_13
Sunflower Oil as Carrier for C60
The inability of C60 to dissolve in aqueous solutions prompted researchers in the mid 2000’s to look for various ways to solubilize C60 without having to rely on toxic hydrocarbon solvents, or by “functionalizing” the C60 molecule thru the chemical addition of other molecules (thereby “polarizing” it). Rather surprisingly, they found that C60 was readily soluble in a variety of plant oils, with the solubility increasing with the number of carbon double bonds in the oils. In simple terms, polyunsaturated oils had the greatest solubility for C60, while saturated oils had the least. Unfortunately the highest polyunsaturated oils (flaxseed, linseed, etc) were also the most reactive and susceptible to oxidation, a reaction which C60 accelerated when oxygen and light were present. This early research on oil carriers for C60 settled upon Olive oil as being a good compromise between stability and solubility for C60. More recent research, however, has revealed that Olive oil varies widely both in terms of consistency and stability. The purity is also far from guaranteed, with much of the olive oil on the world market having been “cut” or adulterated with other cheaper oils (i.e., corn or canola). Moreover, C60 has a tendency to form “adducts” with a wide range of other constituents that are commonly present in plant oils. These include substances such as phenols and terpenoids, which, in small amounts stimulate beneficial cellular responses, but in high amounts, or when their potency is increased by being bound to a nano-size carbon carrier such as C60, may be toxic. The ability of phenols and terpenoids to bind with C60 in these oils also reduces the bioactivity and availability of C60 molecules, making for a less potent product. For these reasons, we decided Olive oil was not an ideal carrier for our C-60 powder. After sampling and evaluating several other plant oils, we ultimately settled on an organic, cold-pressed, highly filtered Sunflower oil for its reliable batch consistency, shelf life stability, neutral taste and excellent dissolution/suspension properties. We later confirmed that the scientific research had already shown sunflower oil to be one of the best solubilizers for C60. And as well, perhaps strangely synergistically given the sunflower’s magnificent display of the Fibonacci sequence in its seed pattern, the high Linoleic acid content of sunflower oil has been shown to improve quantum coherence of neural circuitry in the brain. We continue to evaluate other carriers for our C-60, but we have yet to find one that meets or exceeds all the desirable properties of organic, cold-pressed Sunflower oil.
sci-hub.tw/10.1080/15363830701512450 The Solubility of C60 Fullerene in Long Chain Fatty Acids Esters Cataldo F, Braun T Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures, 2007 DOI: 10.1080/15363830701512450 sci-hub.tw/10.1134/S1070363209080179 Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Vegetable Oils Semenov KN, Charykov NA, Namazbaev VI, Arapov OV, Pavlovets VV, Keskinov VF, Pyartman AK Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2009 DOI: 10.1134/s1070363209080179 sci-hub.tw/10.1080/15363830701423914 Olive Oil as a Biocompatible Solvent for Pristine C60 Braun T, Márk L, Ohmacht R, Sharma U Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures, 2007 DOI: 10.1080/15363830701423914 sci-hub.tw/10.1134/S1070363214020078 Adducts Formation at Fullerenes C60 and C70 Dissolution in Essential Oils Konopelko LA, Krilov AN, Lopushanskaya EM, Popov OG Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2014 DOI: 10.1134/s1070363214020078 sci-hub.tw/10.1186/s12868-017-0356-1 Linoleic acid: Is This the Key that Unlocks the Quantum Brain? Insights linking broken symmetries in molecular biology, mood disorders and personalistic emergentism Cocchi M, Minuto C, Tonello L, Gabrielli F, Bernroider G, Tuszynski JA, Cappello F, Rasenick M BMC Neuroscience, 2017 April DOI: 10.1186/s12868-017-0356-1 sci-hub.tw/10.1159/000073791 Omega–6/Omega–3 Ratio and Brain-Related Functions Yehuda, S The Scientific Evidence. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 2003 DOI: 10.1159/000073791